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Popular Features. New Releases. Lassner questions prevailing approaches to women's war writing by exploring the complex range of pacifist and activist literary forms of women who redefined such pieties as patriotism and duty and heroism and victimization. Product details Format Hardback pages Dimensions x x By the mids, the percentage of women in the American work force had expanded from 25 percent to 36 percent.
Just over two months after Pearl Harbor, U. President Franklin Roosevelt signed into law Executive Order , which resulted in the removal from their communities and the subsequent imprisonment of all Americans of Japanese descent who resided on the West Coast. Executive Order was the offshoot of a combination of wartime panic and the belief on the part of some that anyone of Japanese ancestry, even those who were born in the U. Despite the internment of their family members, young Japanese-American men fought bravely in Italy, France and Germany between and as members of the U.
By the end of the war, the th had become the most decorated combat unit of its size in Army history. In January , Kenesaw Mountain Landis , the national commissioner of baseball, wrote a letter to President Roosevelt in which he asked if professional baseball should shut down for the duration of the war.
During the war, 95 percent of all professional baseball players who donned major league uniforms during the season were directly involved in the conflict. Feller, in fact, enlisted in the U. Navy one day after Pearl Harbor. Because baseball was depleted of so many able bodies, athletes who otherwise likely never would have made the big leagues won spots on rosters. One of the more notable was Pete Gray , a one-armed outfielder who appeared in 77 games for the St.
Louis Browns in Not all those who served in the military were superstars.
Over minor leaguers also were killed. Other players overcame debilitating wartime injuries. One was Bert Shepard , a minor league pitcher turned air force fighter pilot. The following year, he pitched three innings for the Washington Senators in a major league game. Throughout World War II, American moviegoers were treated to a steady stream of war-related programming. The movie-going experience included a newsreel, which lasted approximately 10 minutes and was loaded with images and accounts of recent battles, followed by an animated cartoon. While many of these cartoons were entertainingly escapist, some comically caricatured the enemy.
As for the main program, movie theaters showed non-war-related dramas, comedies, mysteries and Westerns; however, a significant segment of feature films dealt directly with the war.
World War One: The many battles faced by WW1's nurses
Scores of features spotlighted the trials of men in combat while demonizing the Nazis and Japanese who perpetuated the conflict. Many appeared in government-produced training films and morale-boosting short subjects. Others participated directly in the fighting. Clark Gable , the beloved, Academy Award-winning actor, served as a tail-gunner with the U. The poor man dies in war.
He threw dust in our eyes. Jene Scheissherrn! There is no longer harmony between man and beasts: soldiers are grotesquely transformed or insulted as animals, from dog to pig and frog with a climactic moth, mite in French, making a the pun on semite. This name-giving is not like a biblical act of creation but a cry of scorn and destruction. Further on, speech is disordered into a jungle of languages and a mosaic of comments which are juxtaposed, not linked.
The different translations or pseudo translations are another subversion of the poem and create a tension towards excess or multiplicity of meaning, a carnival mirror of sense.
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Language is hence taut to the point of rupture, of hemorrhage, and an excess of meaning leads to meaninglessness: this poetry runs the risk of implosion. George Campbell Hay appears quite avant-gardist in this poem as his subversions suggest that modernity does not lead to harmony and emancipation but to destruction, meaninglessness and silence. Hybridization, however, together with a destructured, injurious language, is a form of impurity and struggles against Nazism as a perversion of modernity.
The impulse can already be felt in pre poetry and takes on new forms which do not lead to but resist silence while being critical of their own status. Poetic survival, however, requires more than these devices and a way of going round, of avoiding an impending doom, is through subversion, humour and polyphony.
Eclogue itself is a subversive mode, as it was used by Virgil in order to comment upon war. No wonder pastoral should be taken up to describe the post-war traumas of the First and Second World Wars. War humour is indeed well-known for depicting foreign armies in comically losing situations or for caricatures of their soldiers.
Both are meant as a survival break outlet from moral tensions. One interpretation would be that the poet is debunking the war-effort advertisements, implying that their aim is to help the civil morale more than anything else.
The joke relaxes tension and the energy which was used to deny or hide war is liberated and reinjected into the poem. Laughter embraces both poles of change, it deals with the very process of change, with crisis itself.
Andrew J. Kunka
Combined in the act of carnival laughter are death and rebirth, negation a smirk and affirmation rejoicing laughter. This is a profoundly universal laughter, a laughter that contains a whole outlook on the world. Such is the specific quality of laughter linked to times of crisis and renewal.
This undermines a sense of rhythmical closure at the end of the poem. These subversive oppositions create tensions which are then fueled by a joyous polyphony of slogans, quotations and the different voices of the persona.
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The result is another reinjection of ingenium or life which turns the poem into an energetic mass, a powerful defence against outside violence done to poetry. Ridiculing propaganda with agricultural references, it proves poetic disobedience and resistance remain active and language is still able to lead to freedom. Sound, because though it almost falls silent during World War Two, nature may still be heard, albeit indirectly, in all poems, as a common bond, a sound one.
Fury because it is sometimes forgotten among the impairing, horrifying noises and atrocities of war—but also because its energy and subversive power help poetry still resound. Attridge, Derek. The Rhythms of English Poetry. London and New York: Longman, Chemama, Roland and Bernard Vandermarsch.
Dictionnaire de la Psychanalyse. Paris: Larousse, Das, Santanu, ed. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, Das, Santanu.
World War One: The many battles faced by WW1's nurses - BBC News
Tim Kendall. New York: Oxford University Press, Goethals, Helen. Goldie, David.